For the Spring 2014 issue of PERSONAL & HOME DEFENSE, author Massad Ayoob set out to explain the patchwork of concealed-carry laws for those CCW permit holders facing the daunting task of interstate travel. To help simplify the differences between various state guidelines, Ayoob placed states in categories of “Vermont Model” states, “Total Reciprocity” states and “Limited Reciprocity” states before supplying definitions and examples for each.

Ayoob describes “Vermont Model” states as “the states where no permit is required to carry a loaded and concealed handgun, and it is simply forbidden to do so with malicious intent, or if one is a felon or has been legally determined to be mentally ill or incompetent.” He then goes on to note that “Vermont is also the first of three states that extends this courtesy to visitors from out of state, and has had this system in place for longer than any of us have been alive. It has worked out remarkably well, hence the term ‘Vermont Model.’”

Ayoob goes on to describe the landscape regarding which states offer “total reciprocity” versus “limited reciprocity” as constantly changing, with states constantly revising which out-of-state CCW permits to recognize. “Limited Reciprocity states recognize the permit from the state where you live if your state recognizes a permit issued in theirs. It is dependent upon an agreement between the attorney generals from those states, and that is subject to change,” says Ayoob. “Notice that I’m not listing the limited reciprocity states by name? That’s because of how frequently they change their agreements.”

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To read the full article on Concealed-Carry Travel, check out the Spring 2014 issue of PERSONAL & HOME DEFENSE, available on newsstands April 15, 2014. To subscribe, go to

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